Personality disorders cause enduring patterns of inner experience and behaviour which deviate from expectations of society, are pervasive, inflexible and stable over time and lead to distress or impairment.
U.S. data estimates that 6-9% of the population has a personality disorder. It’s estimated that 50% of prisoners have anti-social personality disorder. General symptoms include difficulty getting along with people, being irritable, demanding, hostile, fearful and manipulative. People’s thoughts, emotions, interpersonal relationships and impulse control are affected. The following are examples of personality disorders:
Borderline – instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and affect; marked impulsivity.
Anti-social – disregard for and violation of the rights of others
Histrionic – excessive emotionality and attention seeking
Narcissistic – grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy
Avoidant – social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
Dependent – clinging behaviour and excessive need to be taken care of
Schizoid – restricted range of emotional expression
Paranoid – distrust and suspiciousness of other’s motives
Obsessive Compulsive – preoccupation with orderliness, perfection and control
Schizotypal – acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive distortions, eccentricities in behaviour
Excerpts from A Report on Mental Illness in Canada